In drop forging, a hammer is lifted and then 'dropped' upon a heated piece of metal to bend it into the shape of the die or tool. The structure of the metal is softened by preheating it, which implies it can be distorted into the desired shape in a controlled manner. Read More...
Drop ForgingDrop forging is a metal shaping process in which a hammer drops onto an ingot, or metal workpiece, in order to compress it and conform it into the shape of a die or set of dies.
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In drop forging, a hammer is lifted and then ‘dropped’ upon a heated piece of metal to bend it into the shape of the die or tool. The structure of the metal is softened by preheating it, which implies it can be distorted into the desired shape in a controlled manner.
Drop forging is divided into two categories. There are two types of drop forging: open-die and closed-die. As the name implies, closed-die drop forging completely covers the item being forged, whereas open-die drop forging does not.
Drop Forging Process
The drop forging process includes:
Open-Die Drop Forging
Smith forging is another name for open-die forging. During the process, a hammer blow is used to strike the workpiece, which is positioned on a stationary anvil. Because the dies do not completely enclose the item being forged, the term “open-die” was coined.
Open-die drop forging implies the workpiece can flow in any direction except when it comes into contact with the dies. As a result, the operator must be more proactive in the process and position the metal to achieve the correct form.
Although most dies are flat, others feature a curved surface used to reshape the metal. A concave or convex arch, for example, could be used to give the metal a rounded appearance.
Huge bars and shafting, large discs, and cylinders are common examples of things that can be manufactured utilizing open-die forging. Huge bars and shafting, large discs, and cylinders are common examples of things that can be manufactured utilizing open-die forging.
Cogging is a subprocess of open-die drop forging in which a workpiece is compressed using flat or slightly curved dies to reduce thickness and increase breadth or length. The item to be forged is enormous in relation to the size of the die during cogging.
The workpiece is forged in a series of strikes from the hammer as it moves along the bar, preparing for the next blow on the next bit.
Cogging is usually done through a sequence of forging processes. It can be seen as the first step in roughing out metal blocks in preparation for following operations to make the desired portion.
Cogging and fullering are fairly similar processes. The only distinction between the two is that fullering dies are convex in shape. As a result of the deformation, the metal flows out uniformly on both sides of the compression.
Edging and fullering are similar processes; however, the dies used in both are concave in shape. As the hammer blow compresses the metal on both sides, it flows toward the thicker central section.
Closed-Die Drop Forging
‘Impression-die forging’ is another name for closed-die drop forging. It is a manufacturing method in which a metal workpiece is placed in a die attached to an anvil and hammered. The hammer die is frequently curved to give the forged item its top and bottom shapes.
The hammer is then dropped upon the workpiece, striking it hard. The metal disperses and fills the die’s open regions, reshaping the workpiece. The hammer may deliver a single forceful strike or be dropped numerous times in rapid succession during this operation.
Any material trapped between the two dies is pushed out through the die cavities. The ‘flash’ is the extra material discarded when the forging is finished.
Applications of Drop Forging
By causing the internal grain of the metal to deform to match the shape of the item, forging strengthens metal for its intended usage.
High alloy steel, naval brass, carbon steel, aluminum, alloy metals, stainless steel, copper, nickel, tool steel, and titanium are just a few of the metals that can be drop forged.
Industries such as aerospace, national defense, automotive, agricultural, construction, hardware, mining, material handling, and manufacturing frequently use drop forgings.
Crankshafts, stub axles, gears, chains, hooks, shackles, bolts, rods, medical implants, suspensions, and general industrial equipment are all made by drop forging.
Many hand tools have “Drop Forged” plainly imprinted to show the forging procedure’s improved strength and longevity.
Advantages of Drop Forging
The efficiency of production is improved.
This technique can forge complex-shaped metal objects, and the metal flow line distribution is more consistent.
Drop forgings have a precise dimension, and we can obtain superior surface quality and a smaller machining allowance.