Metal parts produced through the forging process are known as forgings. During forging, a compressing force pressures the metal, causing plastic deformation and an alteration of the metal grain flow, whereby the metal assumes the shape of the forging die. Note that, in this process, while metal may be preheated, it is never melted or poured.
Forgings are made through two main forging methods: closed die forging, also known as impression die forging, and open die forging. In closed die forging, which is the most common die forging method, a hammer and anvil press or hammer preformed metal blanks, called ingots, into a die or set of dies that are shaped as three-dimensional negatives of the part-to-be. During this process, the hammer and anvil completely cover the workpiece, which forces the metal to spill into all areas of the die.
In addition to these steps, closed die forging frequently requires a workpiece travel through a series of impression cavities that will take it from a rough shape to the final product. The limits of closed die forging are nearly nonexistent; it can produce a countless number of 3D shapes and complex parts with tight tolerances.
The other main kind of forging, open die forging, hammers or presses metal workpieces into their desired shapes with the help of non-encompassing, simply shaped dies; dies may be convex, concave or flat. Because it usually takes multiple strikes or presses to get a workpiece to its intended shape, an operator must repeatedly reorient and reposition it, so that the die will fall onto its sections successively.
Open die forging produces forms and shapes that are simpler, like round, hexagonal and rectangular beams, bars and profiles. For this reason, and because open die tooling is less expensive, it fits best with lower volume production and the creation of unique, custom items. Other forging processes include: warm forging, cold forging, hot forging, hand forging, roll forging, drop forging and press forging. Read More…
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